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Hearing Protection 101: Tips to Prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Damage

Updated: Jan 8

Many people underestimate how quickly and easily hearing loss can occur. Whether you're navigating a bustling city, working in a noisy environment, or attending a loud concert, the need for ear protection is evident. In this blog post, we'll explore the importance of ear protection, the types available, and how to choose the right gear to keep your hearing intact.

protective earmuffs
Protective Earmuffs / Getty Images

How does loud noise cause hearing loss?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, exposure to loud noise poses a threat to the delicate structures of your ear, including hair cells, membranes, nerves, and other essential components. The detrimental impact on hearing occurs through two primary mechanisms, both specifically affecting components within your inner ear.

1. Damage to Hair Cells

  • The inner ear called the cochlea, contains tiny hair cells responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals sent to the brain.

  • Loud noise causes excessive vibrations in the cochlea, bending or even breaking these delicate hair cells.

  • Once damaged, hair cells cannot regenerate and their loss leads to permanent hearing loss, particularly affecting high-pitched sounds.

  • This type of damage often happens gradually with repeated exposure to loud noise, even if it's not immediately noticeable.

2. Damage to the Auditory Nerve

  • In extreme cases, very loud noises like explosions or gunshots can cause direct damage to the auditory nerve, which transmits the electrical signals from the hair cells to the brain.

  • This can lead to sudden and severe hearing loss, affecting all frequencies of sound.

  • Even chronic exposure to loud noise can stress and damage the auditory nerve over time, leading to gradual hearing loss, difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments, and tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ears).

The risk of noise-induced hearing damage depends on the intensity, duration, and frequency of exposure. Louder sounds and prolonged exposure increase the potential for permanent damage. Additionally, individual susceptibility varies, with genetic factors making some more vulnerable to noise-induced hearing loss.

How loud is too loud?

Unfortunately, there's no one-size-fits-all answer to how loud is "too loud" for hearing. It depends on two key factors: sound intensity measured in decibels (dB) and duration of exposure. Here's a general guideline:

Decibel Level (dB)

Example Sounds

Exposure Time for Possible Hearing Damage

Safe Zone

below 80

normal conversation, hair dryer, busy traffic


Caution Zone


lawn mower, motorcycle, nightclub

over 2 hours

Danger Zone

above 105

fireworks, ambulance siren, chainsaw

even short exposure

Remember, these are just rough guidelines. Some people are more sensitive to noise than others, and individual factors like pre-existing hearing damage can also play a role.

Hearing Protectors

There are two main kinds of hearing protectors available on the market: earplugs and earmuffs. Below is a breakdown of the types, suitability, typical users, and the noise reduction rating (NRR) of each one:

1. Earplugs

  • Types: Disposable foam, reusable pre-molded, moldable, custom-molded, musician earplugs (filter sounds selectively).

Three types of earplugs: foam, corded foam, and pre-molded, for hearing protection.
Earplugs / Getty Images

  • Suitable for: Everyone! These are good for sleeping, studying, traveling, loud events, or workplaces.

  • Typical users: Musicians, construction workers, factory workers, travelers, students, light sleepers.

  • NRR: While it varies by brand, type, and purpose, earplugs in the market have a NNR of 5-30.

2. Earmuffs:

  • Types: Standard protective earmuffs (covers the entire ear), low-profile earmuffs (smaller cups), electronic muffs (amplify certain sounds while blocking others), ear defenders (headbands or helmets with earmuffs)

Blue earmuffs for hearing protection
Protective Earmuffs / Getty Images

  • Suitable for: Situations where earplugs don't provide enough protection, like extremely loud workplaces, shooting ranges, and motorsport events.

  • Typical users: Construction workers, factory workers, shooting enthusiasts, motorsport fans, miners, heavy machinery operators, pilots, military personnel.

  • NRR: Earmuffs have an NRR rating that typically ranges from 20 to 30, with variations influenced by factors such as brand, type, and intended use. High-attenuation earmuffs or electronic earmuffs designed for particularly loud environments may have higher NRR values.

The NIOSH acknowledges research that official NRRs on hearing protectors might not perfectly reflect noise reduction in actual practice. To account for this, they recommend "derating" the labeled NRRs based on the type of protector:

  • Formable earplugs: halve the listed NRR

  • Other earplugs: subtract 70% from the labeled value

  • Earmuffs: take away 25% of the manufacturer's rating

Can I Use Noise-Cancelling Headphones as Hearing Protection?

Thinking of using your noise-cancelling headphones as ear protection? Think again.

Passive noise-canceling (PNC) headphones create a seal, shielding your ears from external noises, especially sudden loud sounds. On the other hand, active noise-canceling (ANC) headphones provide partial protection by reducing the need for excessively loud music due to ambient noise blockage. However, they may not safeguard against abrupt, explosive sounds as effectively as PNC headphones would.

For true protection in noisy environments, rely on dedicated earplugs, muffs are recognized as the standard by the CDC & NIOSH. Think of noise-canceling headphones as an immersive listening tool, not a hearing safeguard.

Tips for Preventing Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

A few changes to your lifestyle can be enough to make sure you keep your hearing quality better and for longer. Prevent noise-induced hearing loss and protect your hearing for a lifetime with these few tips:

  1. Using your chosen ear protection device the right way is essential to ensure it effectively safeguards your ears and preserves your hearing. Earplugs should be fit snug and deep enough to create an effective seal. Earmuffs should cover your ears completely.

  2. Use the 60/60 rule: listen at no more than 60% of the maximum volume for no more than 60 minutes per day.

  3. Whenever possible, limit exposure to loud environments, and take breaks to give your ears a rest.

  4. Certain apps or devices can be useful in determining if your environment is too loud for your ears. Using these can help inform you of when it's time to walk away or lower the volume.

  5. Give your ears periodic breaks, especially in noisy environments. This brief respite can allow your ears to recover from exposure to loud sounds.

  6. Schedule regular check-ups with an audiologist or an Ear, Nose, and Throat specialist to monitor your hearing health. Early detection of any issues can lead to effective preventive measures.


Have your ears checked

If you live around the Hollywood, Florida area, allow ENT Family to be the professional guidance you need! Seek help today—trust ENT Family for expert care and peace of mind.

Address: 3911 Hollywood Blvd Suite 201, Hollywood, FL 33021, United States

Phone: 754-888-1368

Dr. David Eleff, Otolaryngologist/Ear, Nose, and Throat Specialist at ENT Family in Hollywood, Florida.

This article has been medically reviewed by  otolaryngologist, David Eleff, M.D.

ENT Family Blog

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