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Barotrauma refers to physical injury or damage that occurs due to changes in pressure between the internal body cavities and the surrounding environment.

Barotrauma can affect various parts of the body, including the ears, sinuses, lungs, and other air-filled spaces. It can cause discomfort, pain, hearing loss, congestion, and in severe cases, lead to ruptured eardrums, collapsed lungs, or other complications. 


Prompt recognition, prevention, and appropriate management are crucial in minimizing the impact of barotrauma.

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It can affect various parts of the body, but some of the most common symptoms and signs of barotrauma include:

  • Ear Pain: Pain or discomfort, a feeling of fullness in the ear, and temporary hearing loss.

  • Sinus Pain: Facial pain, pressure, or a feeling of congestion in the sinus area

  • Nosebleeds: Bleeding from the nose. Read more about Nosebleeds here.

  • Dizziness or Vertigo: May be accompanied by nausea and a sense of unsteadiness. Read more about Vertigo here.

  • Eustachian Tube Dysfunction: Muffled hearing, pressure changes in the ear, and difficulty equalizing ear pressure. Learn more about ETD here.

  • Tinnitus: Ringing or buzzing in the ears. Learn more about Tinnitus here.

  • Facial or Eye Symptoms: In cases of extreme pressure changes, individuals may experience facial pain, changes in vision, or discomfort in and around the eyes

  • Lung Barotrauma: In rare cases, barotrauma can affect the lungs, leading to symptoms like chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing, or even collapsed lung (pneumothorax)

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Management & Treatment

There are several ways people can manage the discomfort of ear barotrauma which varies depending on each patient's case, including:


  • Equalization Techniques. For ear barotrauma, equalization techniques can be employed to equalize the pressure between the middle ear and the environment. These techniques include swallowing, yawning, or gently blowing with pinched nostrils to open the Eustachian tubes and allow pressure to equalize.

  • Nasal Decongestants. Nasal decongestants are used to treat sinus barotrauma by reducing congestion and inflammation in the nasal passages and sinuses. These medications help open up the airways, allowing proper equalization of pressure and relieving pain and pressure in the sinuses.

  • Medical Interventions. In severe cases of barotrauma, medical interventions may be necessary. For instance, if there is a pneumothorax (collapsed lung) due to pulmonary barotrauma, a chest tube may be inserted to remove trapped air and reinflate the lung.

It's important to consult with a healthcare professional such as Ear, Nose, and Throat Doctor (Otolaryngologist) for proper diagnosis and guidance on the most appropriate treatment for individual cases of barotrauma.


There are a number of techniques that can be used to prevent barotrauma. These include:

  • Ascending and descending slowly. This gives the body time to adjust to the changing pressure.

  • Equalizing the pressure in your ears, sinuses, and lungs frequently. This can be done by yawning, swallowing, blowing the nose, and performing Valsalva maneuvers with caution.

  • If you are diving or scuba diving, use proper equalization techniques. This may include using a mask squeeze and equalization of the middle ear through the eustachian tubes.

  • Avoid flying if you have a cold or other upper respiratory infection. This is because congestion can make it difficult to equalize the pressure in your ears and sinuses.

  • If you have a history of barotrauma, talk to your doctor about ways to reduce your risk. This may include using decongestants or other medications before flying or diving.

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